* work done while Winfree lab graduate student, postdoc, or undergraduate


*Weinman, L R, T Ress, J Gardner, and R Winfree. 2023. Individual bee foragers are less efficient transporters of pollen for the plants from which they collect the most pollen into their scopae. American Journal of Botany

*Genung, M A, *J Reilly, N M Williams, A Buderi, J Gardner, and R Winfree. 2023. Rare and declining bee species are key to consistent pollination of wildflowers and crops across large spatial scales. Ecology  104: e3899   pdf


*Lemanski, N, N M Williams, and R Winfree. 2022. Greater bee diversity is needed to maintain crop pollination over time. Nature Ecology and Evolution 6: 1516-1523    pdf

*Aldercotte A, *D T Simpson, and R Winfree. 2022. Crop visitation by wild bees declines over an eight-year time series —a dramatic trend, or just dramatic between-year variation? Insect Conservation and Diversity 15: 522-533  DOI: 10.1111/icad.12589     pdf

*Simpson, D T, *L R Weinman, *M A Genung, *M E Roswell, *M MacLeod, and R Winfree. 2022. Many bee species, including rare species, are important for function of entire plant-pollinator networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 289: 20212689      pdf

Harrison, T, R Winfree, and M Genung. 2022. Price equations for understanding the response of ecosystem function to community change. American Naturalist 200:181-192     pdf

*Bruninga-Socolar, B, R Winfree, and E Crone. 2022. The contribution of plant spatial arrangement to bumblebee flower constancy.  Oecologia 198: 471-481   pdf

Allen-Perkins A, and 186 other authors including *D Cariveau, *F Benjamin, *J Reilly, and R Winfree. 2022.  Data Paper: CropPol: a dynamic, open and global database on crop pollination.  Ecology 103: e3614    pdf


*Smith, C, *T Harrison, J Gardner, and R Winfree. 2021. Forest-associated bees persist amid forest loss and regrowth in eastern North America.  Biological Conservation 260: 109202.  pdf

*Roswell, M E, J Dushoff, and R Winfree. 2021. Editor’s Choice / Forum: A conceptual guide to measuring species diversity.  Oikos 130: 321-338   pdf

Senapathi, D and 57 other authors including *F Benjamin, *D Cariveau, *T Harrison, and R Winfree. 2021. Wild insect diversity increases inter- annual stability in global crop pollinator communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 288: 20210212  pdf

Caradonna, P J, L A Burkle, B Schwarz, J Resasco, T M Knight, G Benadi, N Bluthgen, C F Dormann, Q Fang, J Frund, B Gauzens, C N Kaiser-Bunbury, R Winfree, and D P Vazquez. 2021. Seeing through the static: the temporal dimensions of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. Ecology Letters 24: 149-161  pdf


*Genung, M A, J Fox, and R Winfree. 2020. Species richness drives ecosystem function in experiments, but in nature its importance varies with dominance.  Global Ecology and Biogeography 29: 1531-1541  pdf

*Reilly, J R, et al. 2020. Crop production in the USA is frequently limited by a lack of pollinators. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 287: 20200922   pdf

Winfree, R. 2020. How does biodiversity relate to ecosystem functioning in natural ecosystems? Pages 338-353 in B. Holt, D. Tilman, and A.P. Dobson, eds, Unsolved Problems in Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ USA

*MacLeod, M, *J Reilly, *D Cariveau, *M Genung, *M Roswell, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2020. How much do rare and crop-pollinating bees overlap in identity and flower preferences?  Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 413-423   pdf


*Roswell, M, J Dushoff, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2019. Male and female bees show large differences in floral preference. Plos One 14(4), e0214909   pdf     Highlight in Science

*Smith, C, *L Weinman, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2019. Specialist foragers in forest bee communities are small, social, or emerge early. Journal of Animal Ecology 88: 1158-1167 pdf

*Harrison, T, J Gibbs, R Winfree. 2019. Anthropogenic landscapes support fewer rare bee species. Landscape Ecology 34: 967-978  pdf


Winfree, R, *J Reilly, *I Bartomeus, *D Cariveau, N Williams, and J Gibbs. 2018. Species turnover promotes the importance of bee diversity for crop pollination at regional scales. Science 359:791-793. pdf / perspective F1000 recommendation

*Harrison, T, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2018. Phylogenetic homogenization of bee communities across ecoregions. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27: 1457-1466  pdf

Winfree, R. 2018. To be a bee. Science 361:137-137  pdf (book review)

Bartomeus, I, *D Cariveau, *T Harrison, R Winfree. 2018. On the inconsistency of pollinator species traits for predicting either response to land-use change or functional contribution. Oikos 127: 306-315   pdf

*Harrison, T, J Gibbs, R Winfree. 2018. Forest bees are replaced in agricultural and urban landscapes by native species with different phenologies and life history traits. Global Change Biology 24:287-296   pdf


*Genung, M A, J Fox, NM Williams, C Kremen, J Ascher, J Gibbs, R Winfree. 2017. The relative importance of pollinator abundance and species richness for the temporal variance of pollination services. Ecology 98:1807-1816. pdf

Lichtenberg, E M and 63 others including R Winfee and *F Benjamin. 2017. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes. Global Change Biology 23:4946-4957. pdf

*Griffin, S R, *B Bruninga-Socolar, M A Kerr, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2017. Wild bee community change over a 26-year chronosequence of restored tallgrass prairie. Restoration Ecology 25:650-660. pdf


Rader, R, I Bartomeus, L A Garibaldi, M P D Garratt, B Howlett, R Winfree, and 46 other authors including *S Griffin. 2016.  Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. PNAS 113:146-151. pdf featured by Nature as a research highlight

*†MacLeod, M, *†M A Genung, J Ascher, R Winfree. 2016. Measuring partner choice in plant–pollinator networks: Using null models to separate rewiring and fidelity from chance. Ecology 97:2925-2931. † – authors contributed equally pdf

*Bruninga-Socolar, B, E Crone, and R Winfree. 2016. The role of floral density in determining bee foraging behavior: a natural experiment. Natural Areas Journal 36:392-399. pdf

*Cariveau, D, *G Nayak, *I Bartomeus, *J Zientek, J Ascher, J Gibbs, and R Winfree. 2016. The allometry of bee proboscis length and its uses in ecology. PLoS ONE 11:3 e0151482. pdf


Winfree, R, J Fox, N Williams, *J Reilly, and *D Cariveau. 2015. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service. Ecology Letters 18:626-635.  pdf  featured by Nature as a research highlight

Kleijn, D, R Winfree, I Bartomeus, and 56 other authors including *F Benjamin, *D Cariveau. 2015. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications 6:7414 pdf featured in The Washington Post, The Guardian, LA Times, The Independent, Wired, Quartz, Conservation Magazine and Science Daily. Featured in the ‘12 Months in Ecology‘ Lecture at the British Ecological Society’s Annual Meeting.

*Harrison, T, and R Winfree. 2015. Urban drivers of plant-pollinator interactions. Functional Ecology 29:879-888. pdf

*Cariveau, D, and R Winfree. 2015. Causes of variation in wild bee responses to anthropogenic drivers. Current Opinion in Insect Science 10:104-109 pdf

Winfree, R, *M MacLeod, *T Harrison, D P Cariveau. 2015. Conserving and restoring mutualisms, pages 268-283 in Mutualism, J. Bronstein, Editor. Oxford University Press: Oxford.


GaribaldiEtAl2014_Frontiers_cover-page-001Winfree, R, J Dushoff, N Williams, and C Kremen. 2014. Species abundance, not diet breadth, drives the persistence of the most linked pollinators as plant-pollinator networks disassemble. American Naturalist 183: 600-611 pdf

*Cariveau, D P, J E Powell, H Koche, R Winfree, and N A Moran. 2014. Variation in gut microbial communities and its association with pathogen infection in wild bumble bees (Bombus). ISME Journal 8: 2369-2379 pdf

*Benjamin, F E, *J R Reilly and R Winfree. 2014. Pollinator body size mediates the scale at which land use drives crop pollination services. J Applied Ecology 51: 440-449 pdf

Garibaldi, L A, L G Carvalheiro, S D Leonhardt, M A Aizen, B R Blaauw, R Isaacs, M Kuhlmann, D Kleijn, A M Klein, C Kremen, L Morandin, J Scheper, and R Winfree. 2014. From research to action: practices to enhance crop yield through wild pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 439-447 pdf

*Benjamin, F E, and R Winfree. 2014. Lack of pollinators limits fruit production in commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Environmental Entomology 43: 1574-1583. pdf


*Bartomeus, I, J Ascher, J Gibbs, B Danforth, D Wagner, S Hedtke, and R Winfree. 2013. Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits. PNAS 110: 4656-4660 pdf

Garibaldi, L, I Steffan-Dewenter, R Winfree, and 44 other authors including *I Bartomeus, *D Cariveau, and *F Benjamin. 2013. Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science 339: 1608-1611 pdf

R Winfree. 2013. Invited View: Global environmental change, biodiversity, and ecosystem services: what can we learn from studies of pollination? Basic and Applied Ecology 14: 453-460 pdf

*Cariveau, D, N M Williams, *F Benjamin, and R Winfree. 2013. Response diversity to land use occurs but does not consistently stabilize ecosystem services provided by native pollinators. Ecology Letters 16: 903-911 pdf

Kennedy, C, E Lonsdorf, M C Neel, N M Williams, T H Ricketts, R Winfree, and 22 other authors including *D Cariveau. 2013. A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on native bee pollinators in heterogeneous agricultural systems. Ecology Letters 16: 584-599 pdf

*Rader, R, *J Reilly, *I Bartomeus, and R Winfree. 2013. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops. Global Change Biology 19: 3103-3110 pdf

*Bartomeus, I, M Park, J Gibbs, B Danforth, A Lasko, and R Winfree. 2013. Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change. Ecology Letters 16: 1331-1338 pdf

Williams, N M and R Winfree. 2013. Local habitat characteristics but not landscape urbanization drive pollinator visitation and native plant pollination in forest remnants. Biological Conservation 160: 10-18 pdf

*Bartomeus, I and R Winfree. 2013. Pollinator declines: reconciling scales and implications for ecosystem services. F1000 Research 2: 146 (correspondence) pdf


Mandelik, Y, R Winfree, T Neeson and C Kremen. 2012. Complementary habitat use by wild bees in agro-natural landscapes. Ecological Applications 22: 1535-1546 pdf


*Bartomeus, I, J Ascher, S Colla, B Danforth, S Kornbluth, and R. Winfree. 2011. Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants. PNAS 108:20645-20649. pdf

R Winfree, B Gross and C Kremen. 2011. Valuing pollination services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 71: 80-88. pdf

Garibaldi, L, I Steffan-Dewenter, C Kremen, J Morales, R Bommarco, S Cunningham, L Carvalheiro, N Chacoff, J Dudenhöffer, S Greenleaf, A Holzschuh, R Isaacs, K Krewenka, Y Mandelik, M Mayfield, L Morandin, S Potts, T Ricketts, H Szentgyörgyi, C Westphal, R Winfree, A Klein (authors Carvalheiro-Winfree contributed equally and listed alphabetically). 2011. Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite frequent honey bee visits. Ecology Letters 14: 1062-1072 pdf

*Bartomeus, I and R Winfree. 2011. The Circe principle: Are pollinator waylaid by attractive habitats? Current Biology 21:652-654. pdf

Winfree, R, *I Bartomeus, and *D Cariveau. 2011. Native pollinators in anthropogenic habitats. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 42:1-22. pdf

Williams, N M, *D Cariveau, *R Winfree and C Kremen. 2011. Bees in disturbed habitats use, but do not prefer, alien plants. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 332-341. pdf

Lonsdorf, E, T H Ricketts, C Kremen, R Winfree, S Greenleaf, and N M Williams. 2011. Crop Pollination Services, pages 168-187 in Natural Capital: Theory & Practice of Mapping Ecosystem Services, P. Kareiva, et al., Editors. Oxford University Press: Oxford. pdf

Menz, M H, R D Phillips, R Winfree, C Kremen, M A Aizen, S D Johnson, and K W Dixon. 2011. Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the ecological restoration of pollination mutualisms. Trends in Plant Science 16: 4-12. F1000 recommendation pdf

Ollerton, J, R Winfree and S Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120: 321-326. pdf  Editor’s Choice


Fiorella, KA, A Cameron, W Sechrest, R Winfree, and C Kremen. 2010. Methodological considerations in reserve system selection: a case study of Malagasy lemurs. Biological Conservation 143: 963-973 pdf

Winfree, R. 2010. The conservation and restoration of wild bees. Pages 169-197 in R Ostfeld and W Schlesinger, eds, The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology. The New York Academy of Sciences: New York pdf


Lonsdorf, E, C Kremen, T H Ricketts, R Winfree, S Greenleaf, and N M Williams. 2009. Modeling pollination services across agricultural landscapes. Annals of Botany 103: 1589-1600. pdf

Winfree, R, R Aguilar, D P Vázquez, G LeBuhn, and M A Aizen. 2009. A meta-analysis of bees’ responses to anthropogenic disturbance. Ecology 90: 2068-2076 pdf

Winfree, R and C Kremen. 2009. Are ecosystem services stabilized by differences among species? A test using crop pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 276: 229-237  pdf


Winfree, R. 2008. Pollinator-dependent crops: an increasingly risky business. Current Biology 18: 968-969 pdf

Winfree, R, N M Williams, H Gaines, J Ascher, and C Kremen. 2008. Wild pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 793-802 pdf


Winfree, R, N M Williams, J Dushoff, and C Kremen. 2007. Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. Ecology Letters 10: 1105-1113 pdf

Greenleaf, S S, N M Williams, R Winfree and C Kremen. 2007. Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size. Oecologia 153: 589-596 pdf

Winfree, R, T Griswold and C Kremen. 2007. Effect of human disturbance on bee communities in a forested ecosystem. Conservation Biology 21: 213-223 pdf

Kremen, C, N M Williams, M A Aizen, B Gemmill-Herren, G LeBuhn, R Minckley, L Packer, S G Potts, T Roulston, I Steffan-Dewenter, D. Vazquez, R Winfree, L Adams, E E Crone, S S Greenleaf, T H Keitt, A Klein, J Regetz, T Ricketts. 2007. Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land use change. Ecology Letters 10: 299-314 pdf


Winfree, R, S K Robinson, D Bengali and J Dushoff. 2006. A Monte Carlo model for estimating the reproduction of a generalist brood parasite across multiple host species. Evolutionary Ecology Research 8: 213-236 pdf

Dobson, A, D Lodge, J Alder, G Cumming, J Keymer, J McGlade, H Mooney, J A Rusak, O Sala, V Wolters, D Wall, R Winfree, and M Xenopoulos. 2006. Habitat loss, trophic collapse and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 87: 1915-1924 pdf


Winfree, R, J Dushoff, E E Crone, C Schultz, R Budny, N M Williams and C Kremen. 2005. Testing simple indices of habitat proximity. The American Naturalist 165: 707-717 pdf

Chace, J, C Farmer, R Winfree, D Curson, W Jensen, C Goguen, and S K Robinson. 2005. Cowbird ecology: a review of factors affecting the distribution and abundance of cowbirds across spatial scales. Ornithological Monographs 57: 45-70 pdf

2004 and earlier

Winfree, R. 2004. High offspring survival in an invaded habitat for the brown-headed cowbird. Animal Conservation 7: 445-453 pdf

Dobson, A P, S Kutz, M Pascual and R Winfree. 2003. Pathogens and parasites in a changing climate. Pages 33-38 in L. Hannah and T. Lovejoy, eds, Climate Change and Biodiversity: Synergistic Impacts. Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science 4. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International pdf

Winfree, R. 1999. Cuckoos, cowbirds, and the persistence of brood parasitism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 338-343 pdf